Antibiotics: Recovery after Treatment
Thanks to the invention of antibiotics mortality from infectious diseases has dropped to negligible numbers. Inflammation of the lungs and intestinal infections that are a hundred years ago, carried away millions of lives today are treated in a few days, even on an outpatient basis. The name of Louis Pasteur forever inscribed in the history of medicine.
However, the same Pasteur, who invented the means of infection control, said the famous phrase: "Gentlemen! The last word will be for microbes. " And the scientist was absolutely right. Since it became abundantly clear over time that antibiotics also complete their "skeletons in the closet."
Side effects of antibiotics may be no less serious than the original disease, became the original cause of treatment. A study conducted by American clinicians proved that the toxicity of antibiotics has become one of the most common causes of death in hospitalized patients. But do not jump to conclusions.
Let's try to consistently answer the burning questions: Why is sometimes the result of the use of drugs becomes effects of therapy? How to recover after antibiotic treatment?
Antibiotics: Side Effects
As is known, antibacterial drugs are classified into groups having common spectrum similar actions and side effects.
Antibiotics penicillins are transferred, usually good. Among the most common side effects - rash or exfoliative dermatitis. However, the emergence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the treatment of penicillin (amoxicillin medications, Augmentin, etc.) Are not uncommon.
Relatively safe cephalosporin antibiotics are considered to be the means of all four generations. Among the side effects attributed to these drugs, diarrhea, takes pride of place. Suffice it rarely recorded hypersensitivity reactions including rash and fever. Ceftazidime - III of generation antibiotic - causing liver dysfunction.
Side effects of macrolides include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rarely - antibiotic-associated colitis, cholestatic jaundice.
Upon receipt of these funds often recorded gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea. Much more rarely develop allergic reactions - rash and itching.
Drugs in this group are among the most toxic. Particular concern is the nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides, which manifests itself in the development of acute renal failure and ototoxicity, leading to hearing loss.
Thus, the range of side effects of antibacterial drugs is vast. But the most well-known adverse events associated with the treatment of these means, of course, - antibiotic-diarrhea. Let's try to understand what caused this manifestation and how to deal with it.
Antibiotics and Diarrhea: Causes
To begin with, that the probability of diarrhea or simply diarrhea during treatment with antibacterial agents are not so small: it ranges from 5 to 40%.
Diarrhea in the background or after antibiotic treatment may be due to two entirely different causes:
- imbalance of microflora colonize the colon;
- extremely rapid growth of opportunistic bacteria Clostridium difficile.
Upset chair, caused by changes in the composition of the intestinal flora - this is the symptom that in domestic medicine called dysbiosis.
Dysbacteriosis - Truth or Myth?
Hot debate over dysbiosis do not cease to this day. Many patients and doctors are diligently looking for signs of the condition and its treatment involved. Meanwhile, Western medicine refers to "dysbiosis" concept very restrained.
The state is regarded as dysbiosis in patients receiving antibiotics, the majority of European and American experts called antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The main and often the only symptom of intestinal microflora is broken loose stools.
Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis - an Unfamiliar Name Familiar Problems
Approximately 5-15% of cases of diarrhea, antibiotics, which arose during or after treatment, due to the growth of Clostridium difficile. The disease, which develops as a result of multiplication of clostridia, called pseudomembranous enterocolitis. The most common complication is recorded in patients undergoing inpatient treatment.
The diagnosis of pseudomembranous enterocolitis involves first in any patient with diarrhea who received antibiotics within the previous three months and had to be hospitalized.
Symptoms of pseudomembranous enterocolitis include:
- watery diarrhea ranging from mild to moderately severe;
- cramping abdominal pain;
- lack of appetite; malaise.
In severe cases, may increase the temperature and dehydration. If signs of enterocolitis should immediately consult a doctor. And no self-medicate!
Dysbacteriosis after Taking Antibiotics
More often, there is a less aggressive a consequence of treatment with antibacterial medications - dysbiosis.
The likelihood of developing dysbiosis, and as a consequence of antibiotic diarrhea is increased, if the primary infection is caused by Clostridium, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus and some other pathogens.
In addition, a group of risk of diarrhea associated with the treatment of antibacterial drugs include:
- aged people;
- inpatient units, patients;
- cancer patients;
- patients who take proton pump inhibitors.
Severe complications after antibiotic treatment - diarrhea associated with Clostridium Difficile, - has its particular treatment.
Primarily for suspected pseudomembranous enterocolitis require laboratory diagnosis. Bacterial seeding feces confirming significantly exceeded the number of Clostridium Difficile, against a background of signs of clinical status is the basis for the diagnosis.
The symptoms of colitis associated with Clostridium Difficile, include:
- watery diarrhea (three or more episodes in 24 hours);
- abdominal pain;
- possible - rise in temperature.
If you suspect pseudomembranous enterocolitis is an urgent need to notify the doctor, who has to take therapeutic measures. Treatment of the disease is based on the discontinuation of the antibiotic, and the selection of a new antibiotic, active in relation to Clostridium Difficile.
To restore the intestinal flora after antibiotic treatment should begin taking probiotics. As a first-line drugs used products containing yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.
Violation of the composition of the intestinal flora not only leads to antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Often the change in the balance of non-pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms provokes the growth of the past and the development of candidiasis. Fungi of the genus Candida, in particular C.albicans live mucosal healthy organism without causing any clinical manifestations. However, with a decrease in immunity can begin enhanced growth hitherto completely harmless microorganisms.
In addition, Candida, live in the mucous membranes of the genital tract, are very sensitive to the acidity of the flora. As is known, a shift in the balance of microorganisms in most cases, and changes the level of pH. The resulting acidic environment creates ideal conditions for the growth of C.albicans fungi causing and developing candidiasis or thrush.
Candidiasis of the Oral Cavity
The defeat of the oral mucosa is most frequently observed in children. This complication appears as a milky white cheesy plaque on the inside of the cheeks, palate, gums and tongue. If you remove the plaque, for example, using a gauze pad in its place will remain reddened areas.
In severe cases, the infection spreads to the amygdala, which can result in developing candidiasis tonsillitis. Treatment includes oral thrush antifungals and probiotics.
In addition, when candidiasis is recommended to be excluded from the diet of sweets, alcohol, white yeast bread, as well as products that have undergone fermentation - sauerkraut, pickles.
The most popular place to lose control of fungi of the genus Candida in the female body - the vagina. Therefore, many women during or after antibiotic treatment are faced with vaginal candidiasis - thrush, manifested by white cheesy discharge and itching.
As a therapy of the disease is primarily applicable local and internal antifungals. For second-line drugs, which are prescribed in severe vaginal dysbiosis include probiotics in the form of oral capsules and tablets for intravaginal administration.
Thrush in the Baby. What to Do?
The immune system of children is not perfect, so the background of antibiotics in young patients it is possible to develop candidiasis. Most often thrush in children appear on the oral mucosa.
The diagnosis is easy to put even a layman: a particular white patches on the gums and inside of the cheeks is difficult to confuse with something else. Young children are often unable to explain the cause of the discomfort. So mom should be wary if a child receives antibiotics, starts to act up during the meal.
Treatment of thrush in the child to be safe, and, therefore, of oral preparations should recall in the last turn.
A solution for topical use containing clotrimazole may be used for children of any age, including infants. With a gauze swab solution was applied to the affected area 3-4 times a day.
Furthermore, some podiatrists advise known from Soviet times borax in glycerol, cyanocobalamin soda solution and other similar drugs. The effectiveness of these drugs usually is not high, so it is much more effective to start with proven tools.
If after applying the solution clotrimazole thrush continues to thrive, the restoration of the microflora and the struggle with the effects of antibiotic treatment of the child must come to grips with the doctor.
Pregnancy after Taking Antibiotics
Many women are not haunted by the same question: what is a safe gap between the treatment of antibacterial agents and pregnancy? That is, when it is still possible to become pregnant after taking antibiotics?
The answer depends on the specific drug, its dosage and duration of therapy. However, in most cases enough to recover for one cycle after the use of antibiotics, after which you can begin the path to a planned pregnancy.
Liver: Recovery after Antibiotic Treatment
Restoration of liver function after taking antibiotics often care of patients, and the need for this process is controversial among doctors. The fact that the reception of antibacterial agents, of course, may be accompanied by minor hepatotoxic. However, in a healthy person, and the liver recovers on its own.
Most hepatologists when a discomfort in the right upper quadrant after taking antibiotics is recommended to simply change the diet, avoiding fried and fatty foods. This - is the surest way to restore the liver.
Despite the impressive list of side effects that occur during or after antibiotic treatment, do not panic and wait for trouble. Modern antibacterials generally well tolerated, and at the right and a serious approach to the treatment of the consequences if they occur, it is easy to overcome.
Trust your doctor and treated correctly!