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Antibiotics - Correct Application
Today a lot of talk goes around the antibiotic treatment. Who is afraid of a fire in the belief that the use of antibiotics can easily destroy the entire body, someone on the contrary, each time chihe take antibiotics "just in case". Of course, this and that is the extremes to anything good is not leading. But what is right and appropriate to use antibiotics so as not to hurt yourself?
It should be understood that the antibiotic is serious medicine, despite the fact that his recipes without too many questions and are sold in any drugstore. To be treated with antibiotics should be strictly indications and preferably under the supervision of a doctor, then the treatment will be really effective and safe. In other cases, it is fraught with troubles.
What is an Antibiotic
Antibiotic - a substance that can block the development or cause the death of certain microorganisms. From this definition itself is tempting to conclude that the antibiotic - is poison aimed at destroying bacteria. And argue with that will not work, because we really herbs bacteria inside your body, as do, for example, cockroaches or mice that infest the house.
And if antibiotics are harmful to people? After all, what kills one body, may well harm both. In fact, we are very different from bacteria, so a substance fatal to them, are absolutely harmless or their toxicity is very, very low for us. This property is called the principle of antibiotics selectivity.
Antibiotics - a drug which is used for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. "Anti" means "against" and "bio-tic" - "life". Antibiotics affect only certain forms of life - bacteria that cause the disease. But antibiotics themselves are based on living organisms - bacteria, different compounds of larger plants.
Production of antibiotics began in 1928 when Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. Its opening was studied by other scientists, which has led to the search for new antibiotics.
Worldwide, soil samples were studied in the search for microorganisms which were able to produce materials useful in the fight against infectious bacteria. As a result, today we have a lot of antibiotics, such as penicillin, streptomycin, aeromitsin Terry-ching. Some antibiotics, besides effects on pathogenic bacteria, can be toxic to the organism.
How Antibiotics stop the growth of bacteria is not yet completely clear. It is believed that antibiotics interfere with bacteria to obtain the necessary for their growth nutrients.
For each infection creates a antibiotic. In some patients, there is a particular sensitivity (allergy) to some antibiotics. They can cause hives, asthma or more serious diseases.
Sometimes antibiotic treatment requires a long period of time, and sometimes they are used prophylactically. With the advent of antibiotics infections were less likely to lead to death. Infectious diseases do not pose a threat to human life.
Most modern antibiotics affect only certain structures microbes that have no counterparts in the human body. But even with such a selectivity, a certain danger to humans is still present, but it is generally not comparable with the danger posed by the disease. Although the situation where the use of antibiotics is discouraged, there are, for example, pregnancy.
When it is Necessary to use an Antibiotic?
Antibiotic - a means of combating the bacteria. Therefore, an indication for their use is the presence of a pathological process in the organism, is caused by bacteria. In extremely rare cases, and on doctor's advice antibiotic can be used prophylactically.
Before prescribe antibiotics, you must make sure that the disease is caused by bacteria it is, and not by other microorganisms. Most often, it helps to find a normal complete blood count, which increases the number of white blood cells with a bacterial infection. But sometimes it is required to determine not only the presence of bacteria, but the specific form for more precise selection of the antibiotic and more effective treatment. Then usually held bakposeve that allow bacteria to grow on the medium, and to determine their views.
Usually taking antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, infections of the genitourinary system, purulent inflammation of the skin and sexually transmitted infections. But many people practice and antibiotics for any colds that is fundamentally wrong. Most colds - it is SARS, and they caused by viruses, which antibiotics do not act in any way.
How do Antibiotics Inside the Body?
Many antibiotics are made from germs. Microbes - are small living organisms. For example, bacteria and molds are also microbes. Microbes used for the preparation of antibiotics are selected for their ability to produce chemicals that are "waging war" against pathogens. In other words, people will take advantage of the struggle taking place between microbes in nature.
Microbes are constantly fighting for survival. In the course of this struggle, they produce quite complex chemical compounds. Researching microbes, scientists have found in them a substance capable of destroying bacteria. If such chemicals are produced in vitro, and in large quantities, they can be used as raw material for the production of antibiotics.
How antibiotics treat the disease? As they get to the desired part of the body where you want them to work? How Antibiotics stop the growth of certain bacteria? This may sound rather strange, but scientists still have not come to a definite answer to these questions.
Some scientists believe that antibiotics override the access of oxygen to the pathogenic bacteria. Without oxygen, they can not reproduce. Others believe that antibiotics do not allow bacteria to get nutrients from the patient's body, and they die of starvation. Still others believe that bacteria confuse their regular food with antibiotics, "eat" them and "grass".
Probably, antibiotics are a variety of ways. One and the same antibiotic can act in different ways on different bacteria. In one case, it kills them. In another - only weakens them and enables a natural protective body's own resources to fight the disease.
When Antibiotics are not Necessary?
Most of our compatriots - ardent fans of self. At the same time, they just can not explain what an antibiotic, and believe that it is just strong medicine "of all." That is why they often find themselves currently prescribed antibiotics when absolutely necessary do not. The most common situation - high temperature treatment, SARS and prophylactic administration.
Increased body temperature is a versatile defensive reaction, it can cause a viral or bacterial infection, an autoimmune process, swelling and even simple exhaustion. Therefore, currently prescribe an antibiotic when the temperature rises can not be categorically, the likelihood that it is a bacterial infection, sensitive to the drug is low, and the list of side effects of most drugs rather big. At higher temperatures it is possible to shoot down antipyretic drugs, not antibiotics.
As we have said, it is pointless and dangerous to use antibiotics for acute respiratory viral infections. Take them for the prevention and impractical in most cases. Nobody sprays poison around the house of cockroaches, cockroaches if not at home. Of course, it is pointless and dangerous to tenants. Why, then, prophylactic antibiotic is less dangerous? Prophylactic administration of an antibiotic may be accepted if there is a real possibility of contracting a serious disease, such as cholera or anthrax, are sometimes recommended before surgery and after. But only if indicated and under medical supervision, and self-administration of an antibiotic "just in case" is excluded.
How to Choose the Right Medication and Dosage?
Selection of the optimal variant of the antibiotic - the task of the physician. Ideally, of course, hold a special microbiological analysis that will identify the causative agent of the disease and to choose an antibiotic that exactly it will work, but they do such an analysis for a long time, about 7-10 days. Wait so long, and do nothing to treat the patient one can not, therefore, an antibiotic is assigned based on the clinical picture.
Modern medicine has a recommendation in case of treatment of all diseases. There are the first line drugs, which are assigned to the first example, in the treatment of bacterial sinusitis amoksilav usually prescribed. There are also alternative drugs that are used, the ineffectiveness or intolerance to first-line drugs. There is also a reserve of antibiotics, which are used in complex situations, when other drugs do not help.
Dosage is also determined by your doctor. If you feel an improvement after a day or two days of treatment, in any case can not reduce the dosage of the drug, as in a lower dose, he will not destroy bacteria, and allow them to develop resistance. What does not kill bacteria, making them stronger and next time in the treatment according to an antibiotic, it will not show proper efficiency. And to increase the dosage of the drug can not be because of the possible toxic effects on the liver.
It is also determined by the physician should be the duration of treatment and it is impossible to break. Early completion as early dose reduction of risks the creation of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. In this case the disease itself may become chronic or give complication.
Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Broad spectrum antibiotics - is a universal anti-bacterial medication. Whatever may have been the source of the pathogen ailments, antibacterial broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and will prevail against the microbe.
As a rule, a wide variety of drugs are used when:
- Treatment is given empirically, ie on the basis of clinical symptoms. In the empirical selection of antibiotics do not spend time and resources to identify the causative agent. The microbe causing the disease, will forever remain unknown. This approach is appropriate in the case of common infections, as well as fleeting dangerous diseases. For example, meningitis death may be a foregone conclusion in a matter of hours, if you do not start antibiotics immediately after the first signs of the disease;
- Pathogens resistant to the action of narrow-spectrum antibiotics;
- Superinfection is diagnosed, the disease in which the perpetrators are several types of bacteria;
- Prevention of infection is carried out after surgery.
The List of Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Let's try to name by name those antibiotics that have a broad spectrum of activity:
- Antibiotics of the penicillin group: Amoxicillin, Ampicillin;
- Tetracycline antibiotics group: Tetracycline;
- Fluoroquinolones: Levofloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin;
- Aminoglycosides: Streptomycin;
- Amphenicols: Chloramphenicol;
- Carbapenem: Imipenem, Meropenem, Ertapenem.
Antibiotic Therapy: the Golden Rule of Security
At the end of our excursion into the world of broad-spectrum antibiotics can not ignore the most important aspect, which is based on the safety of medicines and ultimately our health. Each patient - real or potential - should know and remember that the right antibiotic belongs exclusively to the doctor.
Whatever you think, broad knowledge in the field of medicine you do not possess, we should not succumb to the temptation "to treat yourself to." Moreover, you should not rely on the hypothetical ability pharmaceutical neighbors, friends and colleagues.
To evaluate the risk and benefits of the use of broad-spectrum antibiotic, choose a drug that is able to cover a range of "your" microbes and prevent possible side effects can only good doctor. Rely on the knowledge and experience of the expert class, and it will help keep health for many years.
How to Take Antibiotics Correctly
Any antibiotics should be taken only as directed by the doctor!
The main rule is to use antibiotics only in cases when it is impossible to do without them. Indications for the use of antibiotics - the emergence of signs of acute bacterial infection, with which the body can not cope on its own:
- Persistent and prolonged temperature increase;
- Purulent discharge;
- Changes in blood composition - an increase in leukocytes (leukocytosis), a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left (increases in stabnuclear and segmented leukocytes), increased ESR;
- After a period of improvement, the patient deteriorates again.
It is known that before viruses antibiotics are powerless. Therefore, with the flu, ARVI, some acute intestinal infections, their use is meaningless and not safe. What else do you need to know to take antibiotics correctly?
Record all information on antibiotics you received earlier!
When, what antibiotics, what course, under what diseases - write down. Especially it concerns the intake of drugs by children. During the use of antibiotics, it is important to pay attention to what were side effects or manifestations of allergies and record it. The doctor will not be able to adequately select an antibiotic for you, in case you do not know the information - which, in what doses did you or your child take antibiotics before. It is also worth informing the doctor about other drugs that you are taking (permanently or immediately).
Never ask the doctor for antibiotics!
How to take antibiotics correctly The doctor can prescribe antimicrobial medications without special evidence if you insist. The use of antibiotics significantly speeds up recovery, but this is not always justified. Moreover, do not ask for anything more "in the pharmacy." Stronger - does not mean more effective. Sometimes in the pharmacy can offer to replace one drug with a similar one, in this case it is better to coordinate such a replacement with a doctor or clarify the composition and the active substance in the pharmacist so as not to break the dosage prescribed by the doctor.
Hand over the analysis for bacterial culture to choose the "best" antibiotic!
With some diseases it is ideal, when it is possible to pass tests for bacterial culture with the definition of sensitivity to antibiotics. When there are laboratory data, the selection of the antibiotic is simplified and in this case the treatment is obtained with sniper accuracy. The disadvantage of this analysis is that waiting for the result takes from 2 to 7 days.
Strictly observe the time and frequency of admission
Always maintain equal intervals between antibiotic medications. This is necessary to maintain a constant concentration of the drug in the blood. Many mistakenly perceive information about the frequency of admission, if it is recommended to take 3 times a day, this does not mean that the reception should be for breakfast, lunch and dinner. This means that the reception takes place after 8 hours. If 2 times a day, then exactly after 12 hours.
How many days do I take antibiotics?
Usually it takes 5-7 days, sometimes the period of taking an antibiotic is 10-14 days. The powerful antibiotics of prolonged action, such as Azithromycin (Zitromax), are given once a day for 3 days or 5 days, in severe cases the doctor can prescribe such a scheme: 3 days to drink, 3 days break, and so on 3 times. The duration of antibiotic intake is determined by the doctor.
Continuity of the course of treatment!
If the course of the antibiotic is started, in no case should you stop treatment as soon as you feel the improvement. It is worth continuing the treatment 2-3 days after the improvement, recovery. You should also monitor the effect of the antibiotic. If within 72 hours of improvement is not observed, then the causative agent to this antibiotic is stable and it should be replaced.
Never try to adjust the dosage of an antibiotic!
The use of drugs in small doses is very dangerous, as the probability of the emergence of resistant bacteria increases. Increasing the dose is also not safe, as it leads to overdose and side effects.
Than to wash down and when to drink an antibiotic?
Follow the instructions for the correct intake of a particular medicine, because different antibiotics have different dependence on food intake: one - should be taken while eating others - drink an hour before meals or 1-2 hours after eating it is recommended to drink any medicines only with water, clean , non-carbonated is not recommended to drink antibiotics with milk and fermented milk products, as well as tea, coffee and juices (but there are exceptions, carefully read the instructions).
During treatment it is worth taking medications that restore the natural intestinal microflora. Since antibacterial agents destroy useful bacteria in the body, it is necessary to take probiotics, use sour-milk products (separately from taking antibiotics). It is better to take these drugs in between using antimicrobials.
When treating antibiotics, observe a special diet!
It is necessary to abandon fatty foods, fried, smoked foods and canned products, exclude alcohol and sour fruits. The intake of antibiotics inhibits the work of the liver, therefore, the food should not overload the liver. In the diet include more vegetables, sweet fruit, white bread.
Articles above and comments on our website, are for information purposes only and does not call for self-healing. Consult a specialist for your own symptoms and diseases. In the treatment of any drug as a basic guide should always use the Manual, which together with him in the package, as well as the advice of your physician.