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Amoxil
amoxil antibiotic
Active Ingredient: Amoxicillin

Amoxil is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection.

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Brand Amoxil
brand amoxil antibiotic
Active Ingredient: Amoxicillin

Amoxil Brand is also sometimes used together with another antibiotic called Clarithromycin (Biaxin) to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection.

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Amoxil (Amoxicillin) - a semi-synthetic antibacterial drug penicillin. According to some reports Amoxil is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of children.

The drug is synthesized explorers British company Beecham in 1960. After 12 years, during which time new clinical trials were means Amoxil now available. He became the second semi-synthetic penicillin means after ampicillin, developed in 1961.

Today we can safely say that the achievements of Amoxil are huge: 42 years later the antibiotic still used throughout the world. The World Health Organization has included the drug in the list of essential medicines that are needed in the health system. Often pediatricians prefer it the old way, but surely Amoxil. At the same time, and gradually increase the ranks of frustrated doctors and patients who did not receive the desired effect or, conversely, received an unexpected effect.

Try to understand how justified aspirations of those who wholeheartedly believes in the power of Amoxil. whether the drug is safe, and most importantly - is it always effective?

Structure and Pharmacological Effect of Amoxil

The composition of Amoxil includes one single active substance: Amoxil trihydrate, which is an analog of ampicillin with somewhat modified formula.

The pharmacological effect of penicillins is based on their ability to break the cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacteria.

The spectrum of pharmacological activity of Amoxil (Amoxicillin) is wide. Among the microorganisms that are sensitive to the drug, include:

• Aerobic gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci;

• Gram-negative pathogens gonorrhea, E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella and Klebsiella.

Penicillinase and Amoxil

In the descriptions and comments to penicillin often it appears not quite understandable terms - penicillinase or beta-lactamase. Let's try to understand the intricacies of Pharmacology and understand the effect of this mysterious substance on the effectiveness of the antibiotic.

Penicillins have been used for almost 80 years. During this time, some kinds of ingenious pathogenic bacteria have learned to fight for life, synthesizing penicillinase - an enzyme from the group of beta-lactamases. It is able to destroy antibiotics penicillin and cephalosporin, which contain in their structure a beta-lactam ring. As a result, drugs completely inactivated and bacteria continue their livelihoods.

Amoxil as penicillin and other antibiotics are not active against microorganisms that produce penicillinase. Among the non-susceptible bacteria include some strains of staphylococci, a lot of Gram-negative organisms.

Penicillinase and Clavulanic Acid

The ability of a wide range of microorganisms safely withstand the effects of Amoxil was discovered in the course of clinical trials. British pharmacists development company Beecham began an active search for "antidote" against evil penicillinases, bringing to nothing the effectiveness of antibiotics.

In the late 70-ies of the solution was found. Clavulanic acid and some of its compounds have proved able to prevent the destructive action of enzymes. These substances are strongly associated penicillinase forming a stable complex with them, and give the opportunity to work Amoxil.

The complex is able to act clavulanate at a much greater number of pathogenic microorganisms than the pure antibiotic. I would like to emphasize that the combination of Amoxil with alavulanovoy acid - it is a new drug that is available under various trade names.

One of the most famous so-called protected drugs Amoxil - Augmentin, which produces Glaxo group. By the way, this company is a follower of the famous Beecham, who developed and Amoxil and its complex with clavulanic acid.

All unprotected antibiotics containing a one component composition, are vulnerable to beta-lactamase. Therefore, I would like to once again warn against hasty decisions to start self-treatment with antibiotics. Each group of antibiotics has its own characteristics that are important to consider. And appoint an antibiotic that will bring healing, the doctor can only.

Amoxil: Release Form

Amoxil relates to drugs which are available in a variety of dosage forms and release. Company for the production of medicines try to create their own, the most "convenient" drug.

So, try to understand what Amoxil can be purchased at the pharmacy. Pharmaceutical companies have mastered the production of the following forms of the popular antibiotic:

- Amoxil Suspension children in dosages of 125 mg and 250 mg;

- Amoxil tablets or capsules of 250 mg, 500 mg and 1000 mg;

It should be noted that Amoxil, for that matter, most antibiotics are substances that are dissolved are not able to keep the chemical and physical properties. Therefore, the slurry produced in the form of powder or pellets that are to be dissolved before using.

Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Modern Forms of Release

Pharmaceutical company Astellas, which is famous for its development of new dosage forms, first to market with the most convenient form of dispersible Amoxil.

Amoxil is available as soljutab dispersible, i.e. dissolving tablets various dosages from 125 mg to 1000 mg. The drug has at least two solid benefits: ease of reception and high bioavailability.

Amoxil dispersible form do not need to drink water - enough chewed or sucked in the mouth tablet, besides having pleasant taste. Children form the release 125 and 250 mg can be dissolved in half a glass of cool water.

However, the main advantage of dispersible form - is its bioavailability. Over 90% of active substance absorbed into the blood. For oral, ie a tablet dosage form, the figure is close to the record. Indeed, in most cases about 20-40% active drug is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, and breaks down. Bioavailability of Amoxil dispersible comparable to injectable forms.

Antibiotics Ampicillin and Amoxil - Twins?

Reading and comparing the instructions to Ampicillin and Amoxil, a reasonable question arises: Are these antibiotics differ from each other? Is it possible to fully replace one drug to others, and whether it will affect the effectiveness of the treatment? Because both have almost the same antibiotic structure and belong to the same group of semisynthetic penicillins.

Indeed, the differences among them at first sight a bit. And The spectrum of action, and the testimony of the two drugs are virtually identical. However, ampicillin has several significant shortcomings: rapidly cleared and poorly absorbed. Ampicillin will have to take twice as likely than Amoxil, - four times during the day. But the most significant downside of ampicillin - low absorbability. About 60% of the active ingredient is derived, have not reached the destination.

Amoxycillin, which is absorbed depending on the shape of release 80-95% has advantages in relation to its predecessor.

It should be noted that unlike Ampicillin Amoxil has release injectable form. In cases where intramuscular injection is required antibiotic ampicillin applied.

Particular attention should be paid to the fact that both drugs have cross-resistance. This rather mysterious term meaning that for Amoxil and amptsillinu insensitive same strains of microorganisms. If the treatment of, for example, bronchitis, ampicillin did not help, do not look for the miraculous power of his "relative".

Peptic Ulcer - Cure Using Amoxil!

For a long time gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer was considered a severe chronic disease. The same applies to the dangerous atrophic gastritis that can degenerate into an ulcer, including malignant.

In the 80s it was found that in the overwhelming number of cases, erosive, atrophic and ulcerative lesions of the stomach and duodenum caused by the bacterium ... banal. The microorganism, which are infected by some estimates up to 90% of the world population, can cause the most dangerous diseases of the stomach and intestines! Helicobacter pylori bacteria often enters the body in childhood and persists without causing harm. However, in some cases - under unfavorable combination of various factors - Helicobacter begins destructive work.

For optimal scheme of eradication therapy was found in the 90-ies, which allows to get rid of bacteria in just two weeks. The structure of the combined treatment is consistently ranked and Amoxil. Several schemes have been developed, which show equally good results. A combination of Amoxil with a dose of 1000 mg of antimicrobial metronidazole or another antibiotic clarithromycin.

An important component of eradication therapy - a combination of Amoxil and other antibacterial drugs omeprazole. Last is urgently needed in order to provide a neutral environment in the stomach and duodenum. Omeprazole or other means from the group of proton pump inhibitors completely block the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. And it is essential - the same can not be healing the inflamed area in the aggressive acidic environment!

Thus, a comprehensive scheme called mysterious gastroenterologists eradication therapy Amoxil includes a second antimicrobial component and omeprazole or an analogue thereof. With today's pharmaceutical ulcer - is not a sentence, and the disease can be cured in a few days.

Some pharmaceutical companies have taken care about the convenience of gastroenterological patients and produced products containing the full range for the treatment of ulcers in the same package.

Indications for Use - From What Helps Amoxil?

Thus, as is the case with all antimicrobial agents, antibiotics to receive indications associated with the spectrum of activity.

Among the indications for use lead Amoxil bacterial infections of the respiratory tract - bronchitis and pneumonia.

In addition, the indications for the appointment are the various inflammatory diseases of upper respiratory tract. Otitis media, sinusitis (article "Antibiotics for sinusitis"), sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis successfully amenable to Amoxil Amoxicillin therapy. We would like to emphasize the effectiveness of the drug for angina caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus group B.

Amoxil to Treat Infections of the Genitourinary System

The instructions for use of Amoxil in the list of indications present genitourinary infections: urethritis, cervicitis, as well as inflammation of the bladder, kidney and other diseases. Most urinary tract pathologies caused by Gram-negative bacteria, many of which produce penicillinase. This means that in a significant number of cases considered to be ineffective means.

It should be noted that the gold standard for the treatment of urinary tract diseases are considered to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Amoxil and other penicillins are used for this purpose is extremely rare. However, fluoroquinolones are absolutely contraindicated for use in children, pregnant women and breast-feeding. In such cases, you can assign penicillin antibiotics. Still better to give preference to the protected penicillin to encompass bacteria strains which produce penicillinase.

Therefore, despite the clear indication in the statement of a solid list of urological and gynecological diseases, for which effective Amoxil, better still prefer it the other drug.

I would like to once again warn each patient from the desire to appoint an antibiotic independently, based on their life experience. As the medical practice such self-confidence too often lead to trouble.

Stop Antibiotic Amoxil or When not Used

One of the major problems of domestic medicine - the lack of proper control over the release of prescription drugs. Until now, in most pharmacies can buy a lot of drugs without a prescription.

Often, the patient buy antibiotic online "memory" had once treated and received a positive effect. Sometimes buying pushed tips completely unauthorized. It is noteworthy that about 70% of cases of unauthorized use of antibiotics is not justified.

Among the cases of unjustified purpose Amoxil occupy a special place viral infections. After antibiotics have absolutely no effect on the virus. Meanwhile, the majority of seasonal diseases are not related to bacteria.

What diseases are initially viral origin? This, of course, primarily influenza and ARI (acute respiratory infection). In addition, the majority of pharyngitis, rhinitis, tracheitis and bronchitis are also caused by different viruses. That is why so often we do not see the effect after taking antibiotics for these diseases.

Amoxil, like any other antibacterial drugs, not used for viral infection. To distinguish the disease caused by bacteria and viruses, the mere mortal who does not have anything to do with medicine, it is very difficult. It is regrettable to note, even the doctor sometimes does not differentiate these pathogens. As a result, a growing number of unjustified use of antibiotics, and at the same time there are new strains of drug-resistant bacteria.

Amoxil for Colds: a mistake?

A separate chapter would like to dedicate undying topic - Reception of antibiotics for colds. Strange but true: Many patients in the season of colds stormed the pharmacy with the requirement to "sell Amoxil" or buy Amoxil online. Often pharmacists timid attempts to resist the onslaught of persistent citizens and to explain the regimen of cold will not succeed. People persistently used antibiotics, including Amoxil, with a cold! And ... somehow see the effect. Try to understand what is happening.

Many people believe that the culprit is cold - cold wind, drafts or wet feet. Most do not even know: a cold - it's the same viral disease that SARS. Unfavorable factor provoked a decrease in immunity, and infection easily overcame the barrier. Why do many patients have the medicine and ascertain the "healing" of cold after a course of Amoxil?

Everything is very simple. In the majority of cases of respiratory viruses in our body is waiting for imminent death. In immunocompetent patients with SARS symptoms disappear on their own within a week. Looking ahead, we say that a minimum of Amoxil treatment is five days. No wonder that at the end of antibiotic treatment of colds, many patients ascertain healing. And it is true. With one caveat: Amoxil has to recover from a cold nothing. With the disease cope organism itself.

So, Amoxil for colds - this version is absolutely unjustified antibiotics.

Amoxil: Standard Dosage

As with any antibiotic Amoxil dosed individually in each case. And the dose and treatment time depends on many factors including age, patient weight, severity of illness and anamnesis.

The dose for children under two years.

The instructions on the use of Amoxil are described in standard recommended dosages. They are calculated per kilogram body weight depending on age. For children under two years is recommended to take 20 mg of Amoxil per kilogram of weight during the day. We translate these calculations is available for the universal understanding of the language. The average weight of the child at this age rarely exceeds 15 kg. Consequently, in the 250-300 mg per day of antibiotic is sufficient. The preferred dosing children suspension Amoxil 125 mg: the daily dose is about 10 milliliters.

However it is better to provide the possibility to calculate the dose of antibiotic explanatory pediatrician and do not feed their child extra milligrams is not the most useful substances.

The dose for children from two years to five years.

For this age group to calculate the dose is much easier - the recommended dosage is 125 mg twice a day. Amoxil release form, which contains 125 mg of active ingredient in 5 ml of suspension for the children - the ideal choice.

The dose for children aged 5 to 10 years.

For this age the recommended dose is doubled and is 500 mg per day. It is more convenient to buy a suspension of Amoxil 250 mg and take 1 measuring spoon of the drug twice a day.

Standard drug dosage that is recommended for children 10 years and adults, depending on the pathology severity and varies from 250 mg to 1000 mg single dose. Multiplicity of application - twice a day.

Rules of Treatment: How to take Amoxil

Correctly chosen antibiotic - it is not a guarantee of successful treatment. In many ways, the effectiveness of therapy depends, strangely enough, by the patient himself. So let's try to figure out how to safely and properly take Amoxil.

Minimum course of treatment Amoxil should be five days.

Big mistake some patients - Amoxil discontinue use immediately after a few days of treatment.

Some patients in two to three days of treatment come from hasty conclusions about recovery, and decide to stop taking Amoxil. After all, if an antibiotic is assigned correctly, the first results can occur within days or even less after the start of therapy. Meanwhile, only after five days or more to be sure of total victory over bacteria. At the same time the exact course of treatment should choose the doctor.

The duration of treatment with antibacterial drugs - from five days to two weeks or even more. How much time exactly take Amoxil, the doctor should decide.

Amoxil should be drunk twice a day, it is better - at regular intervals.

During treatment with antibiotics is impossible to skip the next dose, because the effectiveness of the drug in this case is significantly reduced. The concentration of drug in the blood falls, and bacteria, which have already started to succumb to the action of Amoxil (Amoxicillin), continue to multiply again. And now - at double speed, ready for the next dose of the drug is already familiar to them.

Amoxil should be taken after meals.

From compliance to this rule tolerability of the drug dependent. Acceptance of the drug on an empty stomach causes irritation of the stomach wall. Therefore, in the interests of the patient and not to rush to take means in the morning after breakfast and in the evening - after dinner.

Amoxil for Children Especially Cooking

Most antibiotics have one common physical-chemical property - instability in solution. That is why children oral forms of amoxicillin released in the form of granules, which is prepared from the suspension immediately prior to use.

Some parents, buying a product for a child, slowly and painfully trying to figure out what to do with the powder in the vial. Let's see together how to cook the drug correctly.

So, on the use of child Amoxil instructions clearly stated that the contents of the vial should be dissolved in water. After a cursory reading of the first questions appear. What should be the temperature of the water? How it should be?

To prepare the children's suspension Amoxil need cool boiled or purified water. Ideally, the medication is prepared in two stages. Typically, the label is a vial (transverse risk), which indicates the required level of solvent. Some manufacturers place the risk on the label. Initially, the vial is poured a small amount of water (two times less than required) and shaken vigorously in an attempt to distribute the maximum Amoxicillin trihydrate. Thereafter, the solvent was topped up to the mark already, the vial was shaken again and - a drug is prepared.

Remember that properly cooked Amoxil suspension for children - the key to a correct dosage, so go to the process responsibly.

Keep prepared suspension Amoxil should be in a cool place, preferably - in the refrigerator. After the course of treatment medication to dispose of the remains. Shelf life of dissolved drug does not exceed three weeks.

And the last. It is very important before each use suspensions Amoxil is well shaken bottle. This is necessary for the uniform distribution of the active substance insoluble in water.

Contraindications

Contraindications to the use of tablets or suspensions Amoxil bit. Among them the most significant are:

hypersensitivity to penicillin antibiotics.

Many patients after reading the manual for Amoxil this phrase immediately find at all the signs of hypersensitivity. In fact, individual reaction rarely seen: the likelihood of its development is less than 1%.

infectious mononucleosis.

This viral disease, whose symptoms are similar to the first symptoms of a sore throat, Amoxil (including protected clavulanic acid) is contraindicated due to the increased risk of skin rash. Distinguish between infectious mononucleosis and bacterial pharyngitis - is another important task of the doctor, which can not be neglected when the symptoms of angina.

Amoxicillin During Pregnancy: Risks and Benefits

Amoxil belongs to the category of drugs that can be conventionally used in pregnancy. In medicine, these drugs are combined in group B. This means that the use of amoxicillin, including its protected form during pregnancy is possible in situations where the benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the child.

This wording seems daunting at first glance, but it is explained quite simply. So far we have been conducted large clinical trials action Amoxil on pregnancy and fetal vital functions. However, the drug for a long time successfully used in infectious diseases in pregnant women. Reported cases where a protected complex of Amoxil (Augmentin, Amoxiclav or other generics) was used for 20 or more weeks of pregnancy, without causing side effects.

Nursing women should be taken into account that Amoxil passes into breast milk and, therefore, the child will receive a dose of the antibiotic.

Reviews of Doctors

Despite the rather advanced age Amoxil (amoxicillin), doctors reviews the use of the drug is usually positive. Doctors are unanimous in one thing: when the correct appointment of the drug, it really works well. However, given the likelihood of persistence of certain strains of bacteria, the doctor should prescribe Amoxil. And the initiative in such a delicate matter as the choice of antibiotic, is unacceptable.