Interesting and Useful Articles about Antibiotics
This section of the site, made specifically for our customers who want to buy or have already bought antibiotics online. Here you will find all the useful information about antibiotics, about diseases that are treated with antibiotics, as well as many more.
Our first Article: The use of antibiotics. How to take antibiotics.
All living organisms on the Earth have been known to the cellular structure of the structure. Bacterial cells or cells that comprise fungi, to some extent differ from the cells of human and animal organisms. Differences can consist in the presence of cell walls, ribosomes or other structure of DNA in various metabolic processes. These differences and allow the use of certain chemicals to fight diseases caused by bacteria or protozoa fungi. That is, it is possible to apply the method of selective toksitsiteta when the drug kills the bacterial cells, without affecting the metabolism of human cells.
With viruses it is somewhat more complicated, as they have no cellular structure and propagation have to be integrated into the human or animal body cells. Therefore, the fight against the virus can only be effective at this stage, until they got into human cells, and therefore more disease does not manifest symptomatically, and it is extremely difficult to diagnose.
In the 20s of the last century it was discovered substances which, as it seemed, had to turn away the majority of infectious diseases. Name these substances - antibiotics. Their massive use has been made possible in the 50s, 60s of the 20th century, when to produce them on an industrial scale was embedded method of deep cultivation of microorganisms. Genetic engineering has allowed to create strains of bacteria with high performance antibiotic substances. In other words, antibiotics have become available, and their manufacture - advantageous.
The advent of antibiotics in medicine can be compared with the revolution. It has become possible to treat infectious diseases that previously killed hundreds of thousands of people each year. The use of antibiotics in surgery is much reduced the occurrence of postoperative complications.
In microbiology antibiotics is a group of naturally occurring substances, that is produced by certain bacteria and fungi, which have a bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. Substances similarly acting on fungal cells, called antimycotics. If antimicrobial agent was synthesized by chemical means, it is called chemical antimicrobial drug. In common parlance, these concepts are usually mixed and all these substances, regardless of their origin, called Antibiotics.
In nature, there are also a number of herbal substances with antimicrobial action. Such substances are contained in the onion, garlic, thyme, oregano, sage, hops, and many other plants. People have long used these plants for the preservation of food products, as well as use them in traditional medicine.
As for the bacteria and fungi that produce antibacterial substances, this mechanism has arisen in the course of evolution as a defense mechanism in the fight for a better place "under the sun". Some bacteria are able to produce bacteriocins - small protein molecules capable of destroying micro-organisms closely related. This helps them in the fight for ecological niches and nutrient substrate. This ability of microorganisms people use in the food industry, for example in the production of salami. The sausage lay Laktobatsillyusa strain (Lactobacillus), producing bacteriocin. In the course of its life activity, these bacteria synthesize lactic acid that gives salami typical sour taste. Furthermore, producing bacteriocins laktobatsillyus kills pathogenic Listeria that can be present in the crude product. Similarly, there are located in the "live" yogurt lactobacillus - synthesizing bacteriocin, they are able to inhibit pathogenic intestinal microorganisms. Similarly, yeast capable of synthesizing killer toxins that suppress the vital activity of microorganisms susceptible to them.
Slow-growing bacteria (Streptomyzeten) and fungi (Penicillium, Cephalosporium) are able to synthesize the substance, different in their chemical structure which inhibit vital functions of fast-growing competitors. Such substances - antibiotics - are essential for the survival-producing microorganisms. Do not, however, forget that the evolution of organisms against which are antibiotic substances, too, does not stand still. Over time, they begin to produce more or less efficient defense mechanisms. These mechanisms are called resistance (resistance) of a microorganism to an antibiotic.
Not all naturally occurring antibiotics are useful for treating humans. The reasons for this - a lot. Some antibiotics do not possess sufficient absorbability in the gut other - are poorly tolerated by man and have many side effects. There are antibiotics which have pleiotropic effects, for example, along with bactericidal have a cytostatic effect, ie an adverse effect on human cells.
For the sake of completeness it should be mentioned as endogenous antibiotics - substances produced by specialized cells in the body, such as granulocytes or Paneth cells, located in the crypts of the small intestine. These substances also have a broad antimicrobial spectrum of activity. These substances include, for example, the defensins. These and many other endogenous substances contribute greatly to the humoral immune response.
This confrontation alien in nature is widespread. Examples are insects, which produce a lot of bactericidal and bacteriostatic substances to combat pathogens. This is the reason that bee honey, for example, in contrast to the jam is not covered with mold.
The Use of Antibiotics in Medicine
Imagine modern medicine without antibiotics is almost impossible. Alternatives to them has yet been found. But in order to be effective and have minimal side effects, it is necessary to adhere strictly to the rules of their reception. These rules a bit:
- Before antibiotics are necessary to find out what caused the disease. Today, antibiotics are prescribed in many cases not as a means to combat certain infections and to prevent possible bacterial contamination. For example, the flu or any other viral infection prescribed antibiotics to prevent bacterial possible complications. This may also include post-operative reception of antibiotics to prevent the development of possible infections. The line between the need to use antibiotics and desirability of abstinence from their reception is very thin in these cases.
- There are no antibiotics, including broad-spectrum antibiotics, which would be equally effective in acting against all types of bacteria. Therefore, before taking antibiotics is necessary to determine the pathogen and its resistance to different antibiotic substances. Often, due to lack of funds or the severity of the patient's condition, doctors prescribe antibiotics without pathogen search based on the symptoms of the disease and his own medical experience.
- By assigning the patient an antibiotic, your doctor should not be forgotten that its action should focus on what area of ??the body. For example, if an antibiotic is needed for treatment of the wound, then logical at first glance, the local application of antibiotic substances in this situation can not bring the desired result, as the penetration of the antibiotic deep wounds can be difficult on the surface of and around the necrotic tissue. Therefore, in this case it makes sense together with a local, and parenteral administration as antibiotics.
- For oral use of antibiotic preparations should consider how well the antibiotic is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. For example, ampicillin absorbability is only 60% and amoksatsillina - having a similar spectrum of action - 80%. There are medications, which contain esters of ampicillin. Their absorption in the intestine is 90%. In parenteral administration, these drugs act with equal force.
- At reception of antibiotics it is very important to follow the correct dosage. The main rule is that the concentration of the antibiotic in the blood should be slightly higher than the limit of sensitivity of the infectious agent to it. The concentration of the antibiotic in the blood mainly depends on the dosage of medicament and individual responsiveness of the patient to the antibiotic. For example, the concentration of aminoglycosides in the blood at the same reception they sometimes differs greatly even in healthy young people, not to mention the patients who have impaired kidney or liver function.
- In addition, it must be remembered that some organs in the human body difficult to reach for many substances. These organs include the prostate, central nervous system, bone and cartilage. If necessary, the penetration of drugs into these bodies, it is reasonable to use macrolides. It antibiotics that phagocytes are able to capture in large numbers and to transport them to the site of infection.
- When choosing an optimal antibiotic is also necessary to take into account the manner in which he removed from the body if the kidneys, the highest concentration is reached it is in the kidneys and urinary tract. As an example, cephalosporins: ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and. These drugs are virtually identical to the spectrum of action, but cefotaxime eliminated from the body almost entirely by the kidneys, and ceftriaxone - mostly through the liver. Quinolone as its highest concentration is achieved in the mucous membranes, and secretions. Therefore, these products are successfully used for the treatment of infections caused by, for example, meningitis (Neisseria meningitidis).
- Another important aspect - the frequency of reception of antibiotic drugs. How often you should take one or another antibiotic depends on the rate of its metabolism. The half-life of the drug, which is accepted to use in pharmacology for the characteristics of the drug depends on many factors: the existence of links with the protein molecule, the possibility of inactivation or elimination of a substance in the body, and many others An example is ceftriaxone that binds serum albumin, and therefore its excretion from the body through the liver and bile duct is slow. Regarding cefotaxime having the same range of action, its elimination from the body is relatively rapidly through the kidneys. Intervals between receptions of the drug in the first case, of course, longer than the second.
- The frequency of administration of a particular antibiotic also depends on the force of impact on causative agent of antibiotic substances. Some drugs have a strong bactericidal action. In this case, more important to achieve the highest possible concentration of antibiotic in the blood for a short time, rather than attempting to maintain it for a long time at the same level. These drugs include, for example, aminoglycosides. They were quite taken once a day. At the same time, and the toxic effect of the drug on the body is minimal. Beta-lactam antibiotics, on the contrary, exert their antibacterial properties of only a few hours after their admission, so their concentration in the blood must be kept high for a long time. For the patient, this means that the interval between receptions of the drug should be shorter.
- Many patients end up taking antibiotics too soon - upon the occurrence of a satisfactory state of health. They do not consider in this case that the agent still remains in the body, many bacteria are in a weakened state, but not yet eleminirovany. Upon the termination of the reception of an antibiotic the bacteria begin to multiply again, and the strains may appear to be insensitive to this antibiotic substances. A classic example is the tonsillitis caused by streptococcus piogenes (Streptococcus pyogenes). In this disease, penicillin treatment should last at least 10 days, even if the external symptoms of the disease disappear earlier. Otherwise there is a high risk of resistance to penicillin. Streptococcus strains that are already there will be nothing to cure.