In the functioning of the musculoskeletal system, connective tissues in the ligaments, tendons and cartilage play a very important role. But the data of the connective tissue (e.g. ligaments and tendons) not only perform the mechanical functions of movement, protection and support of forms of bodies, but also involved in maintaining homeostasis (the ability of an organism to maintain constant internal environment) as the basis of these tissue, called stroma, are the blood vessels responsible for nourishment of the body in the scope of their action (e.g., bone nutrition). The muscles that perform the pumping function and are responsible for blood flow are attached to the bones by tendons in the area of bone tubercles, which are called coarse-fibrous bone tissue. At the same time, bone nutrition is carried out through the vessels through the bone tubules, which are in contact with the vessels or processes of neighboring cells. This is the fundamental difference between bones and cartilage.
No vessels in the cartilage. The fact is that the periosteum (the surface layer of bones) contains two types of cells-osteoblasts (cells that form bone) and osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone). Throughout the life of the body between these two types of cells is a constant struggle-who who! Osteoblasts need a high oxygen content in the environment, so they need an influx of fresh blood, which enters the bone through the blood capillaries through the bone tubules. This factor of bone nutrition is called diffusion (penetration) and depends on the active function of the muscles: as mentioned above, the muscles are attached by tendons to the tubercles of the bones and thus contribute to the mineralization of the bone and the formation of osteocytes — the main cells of bone tissue. Osteoclasts, on the contrary, are activated at low oxygen content in the environment, so low blood flow is the cause of low oxygen content and increased function of osteoclasts involved in the destruction (resorption) of bone matter and restructuring the formation of Mature bone.
Thus, the conclusion follows: osteoblasts form bone tissue, and osteoclasts destroy it.
Osteoblasts form bone tissue, and osteoclasts destroy.
In the homeostasis of bone tissue is dominated by the osteoblasts, the bone need to “feed” fresh blood. A set of processes of cellular nutrition (called tropism) is an active function of the muscles that attach to bones and nourish the bone mineral necessary components — in particular, phosphoproteins displacement of Ca2+ from blood to bone, alkaline phosphatase, enhancing the complex with the collagen.
The function of active osteoblasts described above leads to the expansion (and restoration) of bone matter, while some osteoblasts turn into osteocytes.
With insufficient oxygen intake (that is, with low muscle activity attached to the bones), osteoclasts begin to predominate in the bone tissue. In this case, osteoclasts secrete lytic (resorption) enzymes that destroy the organic part of the bone, and acidic reagents that dissolve the mineral components of the bone by “leaching” Ca2+ions. As a result of these processes, osteoporosis often develops — a rarefaction of bone matter.
Why do you need to know all this?
The fact that the existing classification of osteoporosis is the rationale for the treatment of osteoporosis calcium drugs. Meanwhile, long-term use of calcium preparations does not stop the process of demineralization of bone matter and can lead to such phenomena as secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased resorption (destruction) of bones. The problem is that calcium and phosphorus drugs used to treat osteoporosis (or rather — to block the demineralization of bones), without vitamin D can not be absorbed in the intestine, so vitamin D3 is made for life: it is believed that it is a prevention of senile osteoporosis. In fact, this is not true.
Vitamin D has several forms. D3 (cholecalciferol) is formed under the skin under the influence of UV rays, and then in the liver and kidneys is converted into the hormone calcitriol, which in turn participates in the absorption of Ca2+ from the intestinal lumen, which increases the content of Ca2+ in the blood. It is believed that this process contributes to the deposition of calcium salts in the bones.
But there’s a problem with that, too. It is known that elderly people due to forgetfulness often violate the regimen of taking drugs, which can lead to hypervitaminosis D, and hypervitaminosis D also demineralization of bones, as calcitriol increases the activity of osteoclasts. Moreover, calcitriol contributes to the deposition of calcium salts in the bones! As a result, there are osteophytes, spurs, and deformities of the joints and vertebrae. For this reason my friend the endocrinologist says: “‘ll shit statuettes, but the bones become stronger”.
Long – term use of calcium does not stop the process of demineralization of bone matter and can lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased resorption (destruction) of bones. In hypervitaminosis D, bone demineralization also occurs, as calcitriol increases the activity of osteoclasts.
Whether you need to be treated for osteoporosis calcium drugs, you decide, but we must not forget that the so-called therapeutic effect of these drugs can be added to the above complications and to solve some of the problems caused by these complications, you will have to seek help from neurosurgeons. Think about it, do you need it?
The results of such “help” I see at countless MRI scans, after the “high-tech” operations on the spine in “treating” the so-called intervertebral herniation and compression fractures of the spine (up to 4th degree) superimposed on the vertebrae and steel plates. In the process of such surgical interventions, plates are placed on 3-4 vertebrae and fix them, depriving them of mobility, with the sole purpose of “holding” the axis of the spine. But for some reason forgotten trophic (nutritional) function of the deep muscles of the spine, which depends on the contractility of the muscles. As a result, a year later in the area of superimposed metal structures that turned off the contractile function of the muscles, MRI can see demineralized (empty) vertebrae. The result is osteoporosis, which occurs even in young people after the imposition of metal structures. At the same time, correct “communicating” with the deep muscles of the spine (i.e. proper exercise) will allow you to keep the axis of the spine and help to accelerate the mineralization of bone tissue, as it is a deep muscle of the spine is responsible for its safety and for its axial (bearing) and trophic (provision of conditions for mineralization of bone) function.
Do not forget about the benefits of the morning (10 am) sun: under the influence of ultraviolet rays in the body produces vital bone vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).
Under the influence of ultraviolet rays in the body produces vital bone vitamin D3.