What was going on in the laboratories of our country at that time? Did Russian scientists sit idly by? Of course, this is not the case. Many people have read V. A. Kaverin’s trilogy “Open book”, but not everyone knows that the main character, Dr. Tatyana Vlasenkova, had a prototype-Zinaida Vissarionovna ermoleva (1898-1974), an outstanding scientist – microbiologist, the Creator of a number of domestic antibiotics. In addition, 3. V. ermoleva was the first Russian scientist to study interferon as an antiviral agent. A full member of the AMN, she made a huge contribution to Russian science. The choice of profession 3. V. Ermoleva was influenced by the story of the death of her favorite composer. It is known That p. I. Tchaikovsky died after Contracting cholera. After graduation 3. V. yermoleva was left as an assistant at the Department of Microbiology; at the same time, she was in charge of the bacteriological Department of the North Caucasus bacteriological Institute. When the cholera epidemic broke out in Rostov-on-don in 1922, she ignored the deadly danger and studied the disease on the spot. Later, she conducted a dangerous experiment with self-infection, which resulted in a significant scientific discovery. During the great Patriotic war, observing the wounded, Z. V. ermoleva saw that many of them die not directly from wounds, but from blood poisoning. By that time, research by her laboratory, completely independent of the British, had shown that some molds delayed the growth of bacteria. Z. V. ermoleva, of course, knew that in 1929 A. Fleming received penicillin from mold, but he could not isolate it in its pure form, because the drug turned out to be very unstable. She also knew that for a long time our compatriots had noticed the healing properties of mold at the level of folk medicine and medicine. But at the same time, unlike A. Fleming, Z. V. Ermolyev was not spoiled by fortune. In 1943, W. H. Florey and E. chain were able to produce penicillin on an industrial scale, but they had to organize production in the United States. Z. V. ermoleva, who at that time was at the head of the all-Union Institute of experimental medicine, set a goal to get penicillin exclusively from domestic raw materials. We must pay tribute to her perseverance – in 1942, the first portions of Soviet penicillin were received. The greatest and indisputable merit of Z. V. Ermoleva was that she not only received penicillin, but also managed to establish mass production of the first domestic antibiotic. At the same time, it should be taken into account that there was a Great Patriotic war, and there was an acute shortage of the simplest and most necessary things. At the same time, the need for penicillin was growing. And Z. V. ermoleva did the impossible: she managed to provide not only the quantity, but also the quality, or rather, the strength of the drug. Our penicillin was 1, 4 times more effective than the Anglo-American, which was confirmed by Professor W. H. Flory himself. How many of the wounded owe their lives to her is beyond calculation. The creation of Soviet penicillin was a kind of impetus for the creation of a number of other antibiotics: the first domestic samples of streptomycin, tetracycline, levomycetin and ecmoline – the first antibiotic of animal origin, isolated from the milk of sturgeon fish. Relatively recently, a message appeared, for the reliability of which is still difficult to vouch. Here it is: penicillin was discovered before A. Fleming was discovered by a medical student, Ernest Augustine Duchensnay, who in his dissertation described in detail the surprisingly effective drug he discovered to fight various bacteria that adversely affect the human body. His scientific discovery E. Duchesne to not finish was due to a brief illness, resulting in death. However, A. Fleming had no idea about the discovery of the young researcher. And only recently in Lyon (France) was accidentally found thesis E. Duchesne. By the way, the patent for the invention of penicillin has not been issued to anyone. A. Fleming, E. Cheyne, and W. H. Flori, who received one Nobel prize for his discovery for three, flatly refused to receive patents. They believed that a substance with all the chances of saving all of humanity should not be a source of profit, a gold mine. This scientific breakthrough is the only one on such a scale that no one has ever claimed copyright for. It is worth mentioning that by defeating many common and dangerous infectious diseases, penicillin extended human life by an average of 30-35 years!