Preparations of this pharmaceutical group are prescribed exclusively for bacterial infections. These can be severe conditions such as meningitis or pneumonia that threaten the child’s life. Treatment of such infections occurs in the hospital based on the results of laboratory studies and the observation of the doctor for the patient.
Treatment of diseases of medium and mild severity usually occurs in an outpatient setting, that is, at home. The doctor prescribes an antibiotic based on the child’s examination and the symptoms given by the parents.
In both cases, he is guided by the following principles:
- Timely appointment of effective drugs with proven effectiveness.
- Use of antibiotics only if necessary.
Visually, it is difficult to determine the difference between viral and bacterial infections. At present, there are no laboratory methods that make it possible to determine in the shortest possible time the source of infection of the respiratory system. It is known that the runny nose and acute bronchitis have a viral nature of appearance, and sinusitis and acute otitis arise due to the action of bacteria.
It follows that antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections should be differentiated.
With a Cold and Bronchitis. In the treatment of these diseases, antibiotics are not used. Nevertheless, parents start giving them 1-2 days after the appearance of cough and fever in the child, fearing that such a complication of bronchitis as pneumonia will appear. Such measures will not help to prevent pneumonia.
Symptoms of pneumonia:
- Significant increase in body temperature;
Correction of the treatment regimen with the appearance of such symptoms is performed by a doctor. If of all the above symptoms within 3 days there is only a fever, antibiotics do not need to be used. With viral infections, hyperthermia for 3-7 days is a natural phenomenon. Subfebrile temperature (+ 37 + 37.5 ° C) is not a sign of bacterial infection, but a consequence of other causes.
A viral infection is characterized by a prolonged cough with an improvement in the child’s condition against the background of normal temperature. Antibiotics – this is not an anti-cough medicine, which can be effectively cured by folk remedies. Cough is a protective reaction of cleansing the respiratory tract from mucus, it disappears one of the last among all other symptoms of the disease. A prolonged cough that lasts for 3-4 weeks requires an explanation of the etiology.
When Otitis. Approximately half the cases of acute otitis media have bacterial origin. Nevertheless, until recently, antibiotics were prescribed to all patients with this diagnosis. The clinical picture of otitis includes severe pain lasting 1-2 days. Then the picture of the disease changes for the better, the pain and inflammation subsides. After only 2 days, symptoms persist in only 30% of children. According to studies, antibiotics can be effective in only one of twenty cases of acute otitis media.
The remaining 19 children, to whom antibiotics were appointed unreasonably, will not suffer. 2-3 children may develop rashes on the skin, diarrhea, – symptoms that quickly pass. The appointment of antibiotics does not guarantee that purulent complications will not appear. Complications arise, both in children taking antibacterial drugs, and in those who did not take them.
In modern pediatrics, there is a standard for the treatment of acute otitis with antibiotics. They are prescribed even with the possible diagnosis of “acute otitis media” for all children up to 6 months. In the treatment of children from six months to 2 years of age, the tactic of waiting is applied, when in light otitis media, the observation of the baby is limited. The child is given analgesics and antipyretics for 1-2 days. If during this time his condition does not improve, antibiotics begin treatment.
The leading role in this tactic is given to the child’s parents. They must correctly assess the signs of the disease, the dynamics of pain, the addition to the previous symptoms of new symptoms – cough, rash. In order not to miss the right time, it is advisable to take care of the prescribed prescription for an antibiotic beforehand.
Treatment of otitis in children older than 2 years also begins with waiting and watching the baby for 2 days. The exception to this rule is the severe course of otitis media, high fever, marked pain. (read also: Purulent, catarrhal, exudative and otitis media in children).
With Pneumonia. A confirmed diagnosis or suspicion of pneumonia requires a special tactic for the use of antibiotics. Half of the cases of pneumonia in children aged 5-6 years are caused by viruses. Children over 6 years of age are more likely to develop pneumonia of the bacterial nature (pathogen – pneumococcus). Infection with this virus entails such severe manifestations of the disease that the diagnosis of “pneumonia” is always an indication for prescribing antibiotics.
CAN I GIVE A FEBRIFUGE WITH ANTIBIOTICS TO A CHILD?
According to pediatricians, any antipyretics intended for children should be given at elevated temperature. The combination of these drugs with antibiotics is not dangerous for the child. It is important to reduce the temperature in time.
IS IT NECESSARY TO GIVE AN ANTIBIOTIC TO A CHILD AT A TEMPERATURE?
Increased Body Temperature – the reaction of the immune system of the human body to the invasion of viruses or bacteria, the development of autoimmune diseases, tumor processes. The abundance of causes that cause temperature does not give grounds for using antibiotics immediately after the appearance of fever or fever. The doctor must first determine the cause of hyperthermia.
Symptoms such as chills, coughing, throat swelling – in 90% are symptoms of ARVI or influenza. With these viral infections it is useless to take antibiotics, since such a load will weaken the immune system and suppress the beneficial microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
If a bacterial factor has joined the viral component, antibiotics are prescribed. To note such a transformation is difficult even for the doctor, not to mention the parents of the child, the symptoms of viral and bacterial involvement of the respiratory tract are similar. A possible symptom of a bacterial complication is a persistent increase in temperature within a week, or an increase in it after the onset of the disease.
Diseases accompanied by hyperthermia:
- Acute otitis media of the middle ear;
- Sinusitis, or inflammation of the paranasal sinuses;
- Complications of purulent nature (lymphadenitis, laryngotracheitis).
The doctor selects antibiotics, based on laboratory data and the clinical picture of the disease. If the drug is selected correctly, after 1.5-2 days after the start of treatment with antibacterial drugs, the temperature begins to decrease. Otherwise, the medicine is replaced by another remedy. Too early cessation of treatment leads to relapse of the disease or its transition to a chronic form.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO WALK WHEN TAKING ANTIBIOTICS TO A CHILD?
Walking in the fresh air is very useful for the speedy recovery and rehabilitation of the child after illness. Even if he passes the course of antibiotic treatment, the baby should walk every day, provided that he is not assigned to bed rest, there is no elevated body temperature. It is important to dress the child in accordance with the weather, avoiding hypothermia and staying in a draft.
CAN ANTIBIOTICS BE GIVEN TO CHILDREN UP TO A YEAR?
Babies are prescribed antibiotics in exceptional cases – if the diagnosis is “bacterial infection”, confirmed by laboratory tests.
HOW CORRECTLY TO GIVE ANTIBIOTICS TO CHILDREN?
The most important rule – antibacterial agents for the treatment of children are used only for the doctor’s prescription. Their use should occur under the strict supervision of adults. It is absolutely not necessary that drugs that help one child recover quickly will necessarily be effective in treating other children. Diseases with the same symptoms can have different origins. Children’s organisms are so different from each other in many respects that antibiotics should be administered individually in each specific case. Indications for taking drugs in this group are bacterial or fungal infection.
Rules for antibiotic treatment:
- The pediatrician appoints medicines to the child;
- Parents strictly observe the dosage and frequency of the drug;
- It is necessary to adhere to the recommended procedure in the instructions – instructions for the time of taking food;
- The child is treated while on bed;
- When treating newborns or children who are breast-feeding with antibiotics, they should be applied as often as possible to the breast;
- Treatment of preschool children and junior schoolchildren is accompanied by copious fluid intake by a child;
- If there is a side effect on taking an antibiotic or there is no positive dynamics of the state of health, you should inform the pediatrician about it;
- It is impossible to finish prematurely the treatment started, even with a significant improvement in the condition.
CONSEQUENCES OF TAKING ANTIBIOTICS
Despite the benefits of using antibacterial drugs, they have a sufficient amount of side effects harmful to the child’s body. Most often the child has a dysbiosis of the intestine because of the disturbed balance of the microflora. This condition is characterized by swelling, constipation, flatulence, diarrhea. Unpleasant symptoms can be avoided if you follow the doctor’s recommendations accurately.
The frequent consequences of treating children with antibiotics:
- Allergic dermatitis;
- Tachycardia (increased heart rate);
- Candidiasis of the oral mucosa;
- Burning and dryness of the nasal mucosa (when using drops with antibiotics);
- Anaphylactic shock.
In case of such symptoms, stop taking prescribed medications and seek medical help. The attending physician will necessarily choose a safe remedy with antibacterial effect. It is possible that the cause of such violations was inaccurate compliance with the instructions for use, non-compliance with dosage.
RECOVERY OF THE CHILD’S BODY AFTER ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT
Do not give up antibiotics because of the high risk of side effects for the child. Parents can do a lot to support the child’s body during antibiotic therapy. Children who are breastmilk, for lactobacilli colonization should be more often applied to the breast.
In infants on artificial feeding, the restoration of intestinal microflora is carried out with the help of preparations with bifidobacteria: Lineks, Bifidumbacterin, Hilak forte. Additional measures to support the body – enriching the diet, the introduction of sour-milk products.
When there is an allergy to the components of the drug, it is immediately canceled, the anti-histamine drugs are stopped: Ketotifen, Loratadin, Claritin, Cetrin, Diazolin. In any case, you should closely monitor the reaction of the child’s body to antibiotics, follow the instructions for use.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO CURE A CHILD WITHOUT ANTIBIOTICS?
If cold, acute respiratory viral infection immediately apply complex treatment (bed rest, diet, inhalation, folk remedies, rubbing, nose washing, drinking of vitamin drinks), the manifestations of the disease can be managed without consequences in the shortest possible time. However, most often the doctor does not delay with the appointment of antibiotics to the child. The reason for this is the high risk of complications in modern children with weakened immunity.
Both the pediatrician and the parents are reinsured, for fear of recurrence of the disease, the appearance of complications.
Complications of bacterial cold:
- The appearance of thick yellowish discharge from the nose with an unpleasant odor;
- Spread of infection to the pharynx, tonsils, the appearance of cough;
- Development of sinusitis (headache with tilts, pressing on the sinuses of the nose);
- Intoxication by the products of the vital activity of bacteria (headache, nausea, dizziness).
Complications of otitis media:
- Inflammation of the inner ear (labyrinthitis) – dizziness, noise in the ears, hearing loss, nystagmus, imbalance, nausea, vomiting;
- Paralysis of the facial nerve;
- Inflammatory process in the temporal bone;
- Abscess of the brain;
- Cicatricial processes in the tympanic membrane, which bear a persistent deafness.
Complications of pneumonia in children:
Nutritional pulmonary destruction
- – suppuration in the form of an abscess at the site of a cellular infiltrate, accompanied by increased cough, pyopneutromic.
- – the appearance in the pleura of a purulent, hemorrhagic or fibrinous-purulent exudate.
- – the appearance in the pleura of fibrin, pericarditis, fever, fever.
- – an increase in the volume of air in the pleural area due to breakthrough abscess, accompanied by acute pain, respiratory failure.
It is not necessary to take antibiotics uncontrolled to avoid the development of microorganism resistance to them.