There are no contraindications for penicillin and cephalosporin. Penicillins act against strains of Gram-positive streptococci, staphylococci, enterococci and meningococci. Ampicillin and amoxicillin, in addition, have an effect against gram-negative bacteria. Cephalosporins are also effective against Gram-positive cocci and are more effective than penicillin against Gram-negative pathogens. Both groups of antibiotics can be administered throughout pregnancy. These are antibiotics that pass through the placenta and have the following properties:
“changes in pharmacological parameters;
“increased distribution volume;
“increased excretion through the fetal kidneys;
“increased content in the amniotic cavity.
This requires dose adjustment to achieve a therapeutic effect.
Macrolides. Primary action on Gram-positive bacteria. So far, no harmful effects on the mother and fetus are known. More modern derivatives of erythromycin, such as azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin, due to a lack of experience in the use of evaluated very restrained.